Spermogram is necessary to asses men’s fertility levels. Semen analysis is recommended to check the quality of the man’s sperm. If after a year without any contraception pregnancy has not occurred, one of the recommended initial tests for the couple will be semen analysis to check the overall quality of the sperm.
Volume: the volume of ejaculate in millilitres
Viscosity: determines thickness or consistency of the sperm.
Liquefaction time: how long it takes before semen becomes liquid.
Agglutination: a microscopic examination to detect clumping that may hinder sperm motility.
pH: quality semen pH is alkaline and protects the sperm from female vaginal discharge, which has acidic pH.
Sperm concentration: quantity of sperm in 1 ml of ejaculate.
Sperm motility: percentage of sperm with intensive progressive motility.
Sperm morphology: percentage of normally shaped sperm. Sperm head contains genetic information, so it is very important for it to have the right shape.
IgG MAR test (agglutination reaction test): detects presence of antisperm antibodies on the sperm surface, which are responsible for immune response of the body to its sperm.
In the event of ICSI, if necessary, the HBA test is done to select the best and most developed sperm for subsequent egg fertilisation.
Semen analysis (spermogram) itself does not prove infertility, but the obtained results indicate reduced ability of the sperm to fertilise the egg.
Spermogram results may vary, as it is affected by numerous factors, e.g. alcohol, smoking, age, medication, sports activities, etc.
Semen analysis results allow diagnosing the following conditions:
In such event, andrologist or fertility specialist will explain available treatment options to you. The most common infertility treatment in such circumstances is artificial insemination procedure using ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection). In a lab, the most motile and morphologically (and structurally) correct sperm are selected under the microscope and then used for fertilisation by injecting inside the egg using a thin needle. In rare cases, when semen production is impaired, the sperm is retrieved by testicular tissue biopsy. The sperm collected this way can also be used for ICSI.
Correct preparation for collecting a semen sample is very important to ensure precise and adequate examination of the ejaculate and interpretation of results. Diagnosis and selection of treatment also depend on it.
Basic rules before collecting a semen sample:
Taking the test is not recommended:
In all aforementioned situation, the sperm should be collected at least 1-2 week after recovering, to allow your lab parameters to return to normal levels and for medication clearance.
It is advisable to avoid strenuous and prolonged physical exertion one day before the test, as body overload, lactic acid build-up in the muscles and drop of testosterone levels may affect your sperm performance.
Stress, lack of sleep and emotional overload may cause hormonal imbalance.
For more accurate testing, we recommend collecting the sample directly at the clinic to avoid sperm parameter deterioration due to various physical factors during its transportation.
To obtain the most accurate result, we recommend doing two sperm tests with a 3-week interval. If test results significantly differ, a an additional third test is done.
Make sure you read and strictly follow all instructions before collecting the sperm.
If the material has been collected outside the clinic, it should be delivered within one hour ensuring the required temperature range (20-40C). Under no circumstances the sample can be cooled below 10 0С.
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